types of foundations in construction

Most Common Types Of Foundation In Building Construction

Foundation is the most important component in building construction. Foundations are classified into two main categories: First is Shallow Foundations and the second one is Deep Foundation.

Shallow foundation makes in-depth as 3ft while deep foundation makes in 60ft to 200ft.

Construction companies in DHA Lahore provide the services of construction and you must have complete knowledge of each type of foundation before constructing your home.

Here, is described the types of foundation in building construction in detail as follows:

1.    Shallow Foundation

Shallow foundation is also known as open footing or spread footing. Shallow foundation has low depth and it is economical. The depth of the shallow foundation is 1ft to 3ft.

We use the shallow foundation when our building isn’t extremely heavy and the soil can bear the specific amount of load at its depth.

The shallow foundation has further four types of foundation that given below

I.    Individual Foundation or Isolated Footings

Individual foundation or Isolated footings is the most common type of foundation. These footings are typically square, rectangle, and any other pyramid block that carries the load on its single column. The size of the single-column depends on the loads that carry on it and the tolerable capacity of the soil.

individual foundation

II.   Strip Foundation or Wall Footing

Strip or wall footings are also known is as continuous footings. It makes when the weight of the building is distributed on the bearing walls except to the pillars or beam and column.

We use brick, stone, and reinforced concrete, etc. when we have to make the wall foundation. Strip foundations are commonly used to build masonry walls and can likewise be utilized when expanding on rock and firmly pressed on the sand.

strip footings

III.   Combined Foundation

The combined foundation is very similar to the Individual footings. It is used to support the pillars that are very close together. Its base is used to share the burden of two columns or pillars equally. Combined footings consist of two or more than two columns that sharing a single pad, for load distribution.

combined footing

 IV.    Raft Footing or Mat Footing

Raft footing or Mat footing is the type of shallow foundation. It has a large concrete slab that is used to support the walls and pillars or beam. These footings are very suitable for soils with low bearing limits and take into consideration better burden distribution for huge structures.

raft foundations

2.    Deep Foundation

When soil is hard and required deep digging that time deep foundation is necessary. Deep foundations have deep depth and the range of its depth is 60ft to 200ft. Deep foundations are mostly used for larger structures but can be used for homes specially built on the beach, over water, or other specific locations.
The further types of deep foundation are described below:

I.     Pile Foundations

Pile foundation is the type of deep footings. Pile foundations use the long cylinder that is drilled into the ground and help to support the building structure on the top.

We can use the pile foundations in the following situations:

·         At the point when a structure has very heavy, concentrated burdens, for example, in a tall building structure.

·         When the layer of the soil is very weak and it cannot support loads of the building so in this caseload of the building structure is transferred to the strong layer that is underneath the weak layer.

pile foundations

Pile foundations have further two types of foundations.

1.    Friction pile

Friction pile is used to transfer the load of the building structure over the entire pile.

2.    End bearing pile

End bearing pile is used for those areas that have a strong layer of soil. The main purpose of this footing is to provide the bypass of the weak soil layer and use the strong soil to support the building structure that having on that time.

friction end bearing pile

II.     Caisson foundations

Caisson foundations are the type of deep footings. It is mostly used for the construction of bridges, piers, and other structures that are underneath the water.

Basically, a caisson foundation is the hollow cylinder insert into the soil according to the desired level and then filled with the concrete, which finally converts into a foundation.

caisson foundation


Foundation must be good of a home because it’s only the foundation that carries a full load of the building. You must have complete knowledge of building foundations before hiring any construction company to build your home.