Waterproofing Systems In Civil Construction
This work aims to analyze the importance and the waterproofing methods in Civil Engineering, through bibliographic surveys and comparisons of methodologies proposed by authors and technical standards. The problem of poorly executed waterproofing is one of the most noticeable in a project, causing discomfort and structural damage. Currently, there are several methods of proven efficiency, adapted to the most diverse situations and particularities that may arise in a project. Throughout the text, many of these methods will be presented, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, making a comparative analysis highlighting factors such as suitability for the location, cost and time of application of each system.
The objective of this research is to promote an analytical, critical and descriptive study about the waterproofing systems. Through a solid bibliographic review, critically and comparatively conceptualize the main classifications of waterproofing systems, identify the main problems associated with waterproofing, proposing solutions.
MODIFIED POLYMER MEMBRANE WITH CEMENT
An example of flexible waterproofing is the cement-modified polymer membrane, whose main indication is the waterproofing of water towers and potable water reservoirs elevated or supported by reinforced concrete structures. The system consists of thermoplastic resins and cement with additives, which results in a polymer membrane that is modified with cement, such as VIAPOL. One of its main characteristics is resistance to positive hydrostatic pressures. It is easily applicable, does not alter the potability of the water, is non-toxic, has no smell and accompanies structural movements and cracks
Asphalt membranes are waterproofing materials based on CAP (Petroleum Asphalt Cement). These membranes can be divided in relation to the type of asphalt used:
Asphalt Emulsion: from the dispersion of asphalt in water, with the addition of emulsifying agents. It is an inexpensive material, easy to apply and is intended mainly for structures subject to movement, where water retention does not occur. Its application is done cold, almost always without the addition of structuring agents.
Modified Asphalt with Addition of Elastomeric Polymer: obtained by adding elastomeric polymers to petroleum asphalt cement, at an appropriate temperature. It can be applied hot or cold, and its execution is properly structured.
Oxidized Asphalt: a product where petroleum asphalt cement has its characteristics modified by the passage of air through its mass at very high temperatures, being gradually melted by heat, until certain physical and chemical characteristics are obtained. Its application is hot and its execution is structured.