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Basic Components Of The Building Structure

The most important components of the building construction recommended by some famous construction companies in DHA are the foundation, floors, walls, beams, columns, roofs, stairs, etc. These structural elements serve the purpose of supporting, enclosing, and protecting the building structure.
In this blog, we describe the 12 basic components of the building structure.

1. Roof

The roof covers and forms the top face of the building. It can be flat or sloped based on the location and weather conditions of the area.

2. Parapet

Parapets are installed for flat roofs, parapets act as a safety wall for people using the roof. Parapets are short walls extended above the roof slab.

3. Lintels

Lintels support the weight of the wall coming over the opening, basically, lintels are constructed above the walls. Normally, lintels are constructed by reinforced cement but in residential buildings lintels can also be constructed from concrete or from bricks.

4. Beams and Slabs

In the case of a multi-story building, the beam transfers the load coming from the floor above the slab which is in turn transferred to the columns. Beams and slabs form the horizontal members. Beams and slabs are constructed by (R.C.C) reinforced cement concrete.

5. Columns

Columns are vertical members in building structures and constructed above the ground level. Usually, Columns can be of two types: Structural columns and Architectural columns. The structural column takes the load coming from the slab above and transfers safely to the foundation while Architectural columns are constructed to improve the building’s aesthetics

6. Damp Proof Course(DPC)

Damp-proof courses are a layer of waterproofing material applied on the basement level to prevent the rise of surface water into the walls. The walls are constructed over the DPC.

7. Walls

Walls are vertical elements in building structure which support the roof. Walls provide an enclosure and protect against wind, sunshine, rain. Openings in the walls provide ventilation and access to the building. Walls can be made from stones, bricks and concrete blocks,

8. Floors

Flooring can be done by a variety of materials like tiles, granites, marbles, concrete, etc. Before flooring, the ground has to be properly compacted and leveled. The floor is the surface laid on the plinth level

9. Stairs

Stairs are the sequence of steps that connects different floors in a building structure. The stairway is the space occupied by a stair. There are different types of stairs like spiral, curved, L-shaped, U-shaped, and wooden.

10. Plinth Beam

The plinth beam is constructed either at or above the ground level to take up the load of the wall coming over it.

11. Plinth

The plinth is a cement-mortar layer lying between the substructure and the superstructure. It is constructed above the ground level.

12. Foundation

The Foundation is a structural unit that uniformly distributes the load from the superstructure to the underlying soil. This is the first structural unit to be constructed for any building construction. A good foundation prevents the settlement of the building.

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